Inter-trial effects in priming of pop-out: Comparison of computational updating models

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Fredrik Allenmark ,Ahu Gokce,Thomas Geyer,Artyom Zinchenko,Hermann J. Müller,Zhuanghua Shi Abstract In visual search tasks, repeating features or the position of the target results in faster response times. Such inter-trial ‘priming’ effects occur not just for repetitions from the immediately preceding trial but also from trials further back. A paradigm known to produce particularly long-lasting inter-trial effects–of the target-defining feature, target position, and response (feature)–is the ‘priming of pop-out’ (PoP) paradigm, which typically uses sparse search displays and random swapping across trials of target- and distractor-defining features. However, the mechanisms underlying these inter-trial effects are still not well understood. To address this, we applied a modeling framework combining an evidence accumulation (EA) model with different computational updating rules of the model parameters (i.e., the drift rate and starting point of EA) for…
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Personality Traits, Loneliness, and Affect Among Boxers

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Chen, X., Qiu, N., Chen, C., & Zhai, L. (2021). Personality Traits, Loneliness, and Affect Among Boxers. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 609153. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.609153 Abstract This study aimed to test the association between personality traits and affect among boxers and to figure out whether loneliness mediated this relationship. This study used The Big Five Personality Traits Scale, The UCLA Loneliness Scale, and The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) which were administered to N = 231 boxers (age: M = 20.28; SD = 2.60), of which 62% were male (n = 144) and 38% were female (n = 87). The results showed that (1) conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were negatively related with negative affect, neuroticism was positively associated with negative affect, and openness showed no relationship with negative affect; (2) conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were all positively correlated with…
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The origin of Vierordt’s law: The experimental protocol matters

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Glasauer, S., & Shi, Z. (2021). The origin of Vierordt’s law: The experimental protocol matters. PsyCh Journal, pchj.464. https://doi.org/10.1002/pchj.464 Abstract In 1868, Karl Vierordt discovered one type of errors in time perception—an overestimation of short duration and underestimation of long durations, known as Vierordt's law. Here we reviewed the original study in its historical context and asked whether Vierordt's law is a result of an unnatural experimental randomization protocol. Using iterative Bayesian updating, we simulated the original results with high accuracy. Importantly, the model also predicted that a slowly changing random-walk sequence produces less central tendency than a random sequence with the same durations. This was validated by a duration reproduction experiment from two sequences (random and random walk) with the same sampled distribution. The results showed that trial-wise variation influenced the…
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Perceiving Tempo in Incongruent Audiovisual Presentations of Human Motion: Evidence for a Visual Driving Effect

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Wang, X., Wöllner, C., & Shi, Z. (2021). Perceiving Tempo in Incongruent Audiovisual Presentations of Human Motion: Evidence for a Visual Driving Effect. Timing & Time Perception, -1(aop), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1163/22134468-bja10036 Abstract Compared to vision, audition has been considered to be the dominant sensory modality for temporal processing. Nevertheless, recent research suggests the opposite, such that the apparent inferiority of visual information in tempo judgements might be due to the lack of ecological validity of experimental stimuli, and reliable visual movements may have the potential to alter the temporal location of perceived auditory inputs. To explore the role of audition and vision in overall time perception, audiovisual stimuli with various degrees of temporal congruence were developed in the current study. We investigated which sensory modality weighs more in holistic tempo judgements with conflicting…
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Variation in the “coefficient of variation”: Rethinking the violation of the scalar property in time-duration judgments

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Ren, Y., Allenmark, F., Müller, H. J., & Shi, Z. (2021). Variation in the “coefficient of variation”: Rethinking the violation of the scalar property in time-duration judgments. Acta Psychologica, 214, 103263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2021.103263 Abstract The coefficient of variation (CV), also known as relative standard deviation, has been used to measure the constancy of the Weber fraction, a key signature of efficient neural coding in time perception. It has long been debated whether or not duration judgments follow Weber’s law, with arguments based on examinations of the CV. However, what has been largely ignored in this debate is that the observed CVs may be modulated by temporal context and decision uncertainty, thus questioning conclusions based on this measure. Here, we used a temporal reproduction paradigm to examine the variation of the CV with two…
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Logarithmic encoding of ensemble time intervals

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Ren, Y., Allenmark, F., Müller, H. J., & Shi, Z. (2020). Logarithmic encoding of ensemble time intervals. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18174. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75191-6 Abstract Although time perception is based on the internal representation of time, whether the subjective timeline is scaled linearly or logarithmically remains an open issue. Evidence from previous research is mixed: while the classical internal-clock model assumes a linear scale with scalar variability, there is evidence that logarithmic timing provides a better fit to behavioral data. A major challenge for investigating the nature of the internal scale is that the retrieval process required for time judgments may involve a remapping of the subjective time back to the objective scale, complicating any direct interpretation of behavioral findings. Here, we used a novel approach, requiring rapid intuitive ‘ensemble’ averaging of a whole…
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Temporal bisection is influenced by ensemble statistics of the stimulus set

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Zhu, X., Baykan, C., Müller, H. J., & Shi, Z. (2020). Temporal bisection is influenced by ensemble statistics of the stimulus set. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02202-z AbstractAlthough humans are well capable of precise time measurement, their duration judgments are nevertheless susceptible totemporal context. Previous research on temporal bisection has shown that duration comparisons are influenced by both stimulusspacing and ensemble statistics. However, theories proposed to account for bisection performance lack a plausible justification ofhow the effects of stimulus spacing and ensemble statistics are actually combined in temporal judgments. To explain the variouscontextual effects in temporal bisection, we develop a unifiedensemble-distribution account(EDA), which assumes that themean and variance of the duration set serve as a reference, rather than the short and long standards, in duration comparison. Tovalidate this account, we conducted…
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Statistical learning of frequent distractor locations in visual search involves regional signal suppression in early visual cortex

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Zhang, B., Weidner, R., Allenmark, F., Bertleff, S., Fink, G. R., Shi, Z., & Müller, H. J. (2021). Statistical learning of frequent distractor locations in visual search involves regional signal suppression in early visual cortex. In bioRxiv (p. 2021.04.16.440127). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.16.440127 Abstract Observers can learn the locations where salient distractors appear frequently to reduce potential interference – an effect attributed to better suppression of distractors at frequent locations. But how distractor suppression is implemented in the visual cortex and frontoparietal attention networks remains unclear. We used fMRI and a regional distractor-location learning paradigm (Sauter et al. 2018, 2020) with two types of distractors defined in either the same (orientation) or a different (colour) dimension to the target to investigate this issue. fMRI results showed that BOLD signals in early visual cortex were significantly reduced…
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Sequential dependence and Vierordt’s law

Sequential dependence and Vierordt’s law

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Perceptual bias caused by sequential dependence has attracted lots of attention recently. The phenomenon is not new. For example, 150 years ago Vierordt has found a classic central tendency effect using duration reproduction. However, recently Stefan Glasauer and me looked into the original study conducted by Vierordt (1868), and found actually Vierordt wrongly used the method developed by Fechner (1860). That is, Vieordt introduced randomization in the 'method of average error' that Fechner invented. Using iterative Bayesian updating we are able to replicate the original Vierordt's results. More interestingly, we found that the randomization is the main factor that causes the classic Vierordt's law. That is, the short duration is often overestimated and long duration underestimated. We conducted a new study with two different sequences, sampled from the same distribution,…
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What you see depends on what you hear: temporal averaging and crossmodal integration

What you see depends on what you hear: temporal averaging and crossmodal integration

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In our multisensory world, we often rely more on auditory information than on visual input for temporal processing. One typical demonstration of this is that the rate of auditory flutter assimilates the rate of concurrent visual flicker. To date, however, this auditory dominance effect has largely been studied using regular auditory rhythms. It thus remains unclear whether irregular rhythms would have a similar impact on visual temporal processing, what information is extracted from the auditory sequence that comes to influence visual timing, and how the auditory and visual temporal rates are integrated together in quantitative terms. We investigated these questions by assessing, and modeling, the influence of a task-irrelevant auditory sequence on the type of "Ternus apparent motion": group motion versus element motion. The type of motion seen critically depends…
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